Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus

Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus

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A considerable body of evidence indicates that chronic inflammation plays a central role in developing and progressing metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus.

Recent advances in regenerative medicine have led to the development of new stem cell-based therapies that show great promise for treating metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. These therapies are anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory, which makes them highly effective against these conditions.

Several clinical trials are currently underway to test the efficacy of these new therapies, and the results are very promising. There is growing preclinical and clinical evidence that stem cells can control several of the aforementioned components of MS (1-6).

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Numerous completed or ongoing clinical trials have aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of stem cells in the treatment of MS and T1DM, and T2DM. Thus, many experts, supported by scientific evidence, consider that regenerative medicine represents one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for these diseases (9-18). In summary, in six systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies in patients with T1DM or T2DM recently published, the reported positive findings and conclusions of stem cell therapy were improved glycosylated hemoglobin and C-peptide levels and insulin requirements(19-24).


1. Li F, Guo X, Chen SY. Function and Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Atherosclerosis. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2017;4:32. doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2017.00032.
2. Payab M, Goodarzi P, Foroughi Heravani N, Hadavandkhani M, Zarei Z, Falahzadeh K, et al. Stem Cell and Obesity: Current State and Future Perspective. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018;1089:1-22. doi: 10.1007/5584_2018_227.
3. Shree N, Venkategowda S, Venkatranganna MV, Datta I, Bhonde RR. Human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells as a novel treatment modality for correcting obesity induced metabolic dysregulation. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019;43(10):2107-2118. doi: 10.1038/s41366-019-0438-5.
4. Mahdavi Gorabi A, Banach M, Reiner Ž, Pirro M, Hajighasemi S, Johnston TP, et al. The Role of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Atherosclerosis: Prospects for Therapy via the Modulation of Inflammatory Milieu. J Clin Med. 2019;8(9):1413. doi: 10.3390/jcm8091413.
5. Luo R, Li L, Liu X, Yuan Y, Zhu W, Li L, Liu J, Lu Y, Cheng J, Chen Y. Mesenchymal stem cells alleviate palmitic acid induced endothelial to mesenchymal transition by suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2020. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00155.2020. 6. Ogay V, Sekenova A, Li Y, Issabekova A, Saparov A. The Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Atherosclerosis. Curr Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021. doi: 10.2174/1574888X16999210128193549.
7. Peng BY, Dubey NK, Mishra VK, Tsai FC, Dubey R, Deng WP, et al. Addressing Stem Cell Therapeutic Approaches in Pathobiology of Diabetes and Its Complications. J Diabetes Res. 2018;2018:7806435. doi: 10.1155/2018/7806435.
8. Wang L, Liu T, Liang R, Wang G, Liu Y, Zou J, et al. Mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate β cell dysfunction of human type 2 diabetic islets by reversing β cell dedifferentiation. EBioMedicine. 2020 Jan 6;51:102615. doi: 10.1016/j.ebiom.2019.102615.
9. Hu J, Wang Y, Gong H, Yu C, Guo C, Wang F, et al. Longterm effect and safety of Wharton’s jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells on type 2 diabetes. Exp Ther Med. 2016;12(3):1857-1866.
10. Scuteri A, Monfrini M. Mesenchymal Stem Cells as New Therapeutic Approach for Diabetes and Pancreatic Disorders. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(9). pii: E2783. doi: 10.3390/ijms19092783.
11. Päth G, Perakakis N, Mantzoros CS, Seufert J. Stem cells in the treatment of diabetes mellitus – focus on mesenchymal stem cells. Metabolism. 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2018.10.005.
12. Cho J, D’Antuono M, Glicksman M, Wang J, Jonklaas J. A review of clinical trials: mesenchymal stem cell transplant therapy in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Stem Cells. 2018;7(4):82-93.
13. Solis MA, Moreno Velásquez I, Correa R, Huang LLH. Stem cells as a potential therapy for diabetes mellitus: a call-to-action in Latin America. Diabetol Metab Syndr. 2019;11:20. doi: 10.1186/s13098-019-0415-0. 14. Guo XJ, Li FJ, He YZ, Hou SF, Zhu HB, Cheng Y, et al. Efficacy of Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Updated Meta-Analysis. Diabetes Ther. 2019. doi: 10.1007/s13300-019-0578-6.
15. Shree N, Venkategowda S, Venkatranganna MV, Datta I, Bhonde RR. Human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells as a novel treatment modality for correcting obesity induced metabolic dysregulation. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019;43(10):2107-2118. doi: 10.1038/s41366-019-0438-5.
16. Kamal MM, Kassem DH. Therapeutic Potential of Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Diabetes: Achievements and Challenges. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2020;8:16. doi: 10.3389/fcell.2020.00016.
17. Pixley JS. Mesenchymal stem cells to treat type 1 diabetes. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis. 2020;1866(4):165315. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2018.10.033.
18. Chen J, Zheng CX, Jin Y, Hu CH. Mesenchymal stromal cell-mediated immune regulation: A promising remedy in the therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Stem Cells. 2021 Feb 23. doi: 10.1002/stem.3357.
19. Zhang Y, Chen W, Feng B, Cao H. The Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Stem Cell Therapy for Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Aging Dis. 2020;11(1):141-153. doi: 10.14336/AD.2019.0421.
20. Goenka V, Borkar T, Desai A, Das RK. Therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in treating both types of diabetes mellitus and associated diseases. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2020;19(2):1979-1993. doi: 10.1007/s40200-020-00647-5.
21. Kassem DH, Kamal MM. Therapeutic efficacy of umbilical cord-derived stem cells for diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis study. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2020;11(1):484. doi: 10.1186/s13287-020-01996-x.
22. Ranjbaran H, Mohammadi-Joubani B, Amirfakhrian E, Alizadeh-Navaei R. Efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells therapy on glucose levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-Analysis. J Diabetes Investig. 2020. doi: 10.1111/jdi.13404.
23. Wu Q, Zheng S, Qin Y, Zheng X, Chen H, Yang T, Zhang M. Efficacy and safety of stem cells transplantation in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Endocr J. 2020;67(8):827-840. doi: 10.1507/endocrj.EJ20-0050.
24. Rifai L, Saleh FA. Conventional and Alternative Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapies for the Treatment of Diabetes. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021. doi: 10.1007/5584_2020_614.

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